Department of Geography

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 116
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    Weather Forecasting and Communication in the Upper Great Ruaha Catchment Area in eds. P.Z. Yanda et al. Climate Change Impacts and Sustainability: Ecosystems of Tanzania,
    (CABI International, 2020) Mwajombe, R. Anselm; Lema, A. Godwin
    Effective weather forecast dissemination depends on how effective dissemination channels are in informing decision making for improved management of water resources and livelihood activities, which depend on water resources in catchment areas. In this chapter, the effectiveness of the channels for weather forecast dissemination is assessed in terms of magnitude of awareness creation and versatility to end users. Our findings show that both traditional and conventional channels of weather forecasting and communication can be used to create awareness to end users in various parts of the country. For local communities, traditional weather forecasting and communicating were contingent on indigenous knowledge acquired through interaction with the local environment. Such information was accessed through indicators or signs that entail plant phenology, astronomical and meteorological events as well as mammals’ behaviour. Conventional forecasting is communicated via modern communication technologies including radio, television, the internet and posted letters. Communication of traditional weather forecasting is mainly through oral traditions. Results from our respondents revealed that 40% received weather forecasts through traditional channels, 11% through modern channels and 49% through modern and traditional channels. The majority of respondents said that weather forecasts from modern sources were not reliable to inform the decision-making process when compared with traditional sources. The study recommends synchronizing modern and traditional channels for effective weather forecast delivery.
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    Strategic environmental assessment for low-carbon development: developing an analysis framework, Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
    (Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, 2022-05-17) Amani, G. Rweyendela; Noah, M. Pauline; Lema, A. Godwin
    Understanding of strategic environmental assessment’s (SEA) influence on low-carbon development (LCD) is critical as societies strive to decarbonize without jeopardizing economic growth. As best practice perceptions are still evolving, plausible conceptual and analytical frameworks are needed. This paper offers a conceptual clarification and proposes a framework for analyzing environmental reports. We employed a multi-phased, mixed-methods approach. The first phase involved an integrative literature review that combined theoretical insights from LCD and transition management with SEA’s procedural aspects. The extracted data was used to develop an initial framework in the second phase. The third phase utilized an international case study and expert consultations to illustrate, validate and refine the framework. The resulting framework comprises five review areas to be verified by a series of review questions reflecting good practice. It could assist SEA researchers, practitioners, responsible authorities, policymakers and environmental agencies better understand, prioritize and address the issue of LCD.
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    COVID-19 Impact and Tourism Recovery Geopolitics: A Paradox in Tanzania
    (Population Studies and Research Centre University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-06-30) Lema, A. Lema
    Responses to recover from the first wave of COVID-19 crisis created a divide globally partly as some countries interpreted the pandemic defiantly, aptly to rescue their tourism, among other sectors. A lasting tragedy of the pandemic impact continues to particularly frustrate global tourism mobility unless strategic consensus is found. The strategy that Tanzania adopted to restore tourism early amidst the pandemic is examined in this article. It draws from headlines, surveys, tourist arrival statistics and interviews with industry actors. Findings revealed that from 16th March 2020, Tanzania reported coronavirus infections and few associated COVID-19 deaths for nearly three months after the pandemic outbreak. Airspace and border closures from 20th March halted tourist arrivals resulting to business closures, unemployment and severe revenue loss. Reopening of international gateways from May 2020, through adopting standard operating procedures, reverted a sharp decline of arrivals experienced in April-May to a gradual increase of arrivals from June onwards. Despite the early reopening, the number of international tourist arrivals were far below the pre-crisis levels, implying that the country’s efforts were hardly resolving the tourism post-pandemic recovery paradox. Consensus is vital in restarting and sustaining post-pandemic tourism. This article contributes to the geopolitics of COVID-19, tourism recovery and resilience in Tanzania and globally, calling for continued collaboration among national and international tourism actors to chart out a post-pandemic sustainable tourism recovery strategy, as a policy response.
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    Drivers of Tourism in Zanzibar
    (Dar es Salaam University Press (DUP), 2016) Lema, A. Godwin
    Understanding drivers of tourism is important in transforming actors’ perceptions and ultimately the industry for sustainability. Motives, historical forces shaping tourism policy, legislations and their actual implementations is less researched. This paper exposes drivers of tourism in Zanzibar. It explains how the contested natural, cultural heritage, revolutionary regime, neoliberal structural adjustment, legislations and policy changes in the archipelago shape our understanding of tourism theory and practices overtime and space. It is generally founded that enduring political instability, conflicting institutional power struggles and variable interests have created unique unsustainable tourism practices and trends in the island. Overall, the paper contributes to an understanding of the use of post structural critical theory and political ecology approach in rethinking the future of tourism policy and legislations with references to island destinations in developing economies.
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    Political ecology of tourism & livelihood in Zanzibar
    (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), 2015-05-27) Lema, Godwin Adiel; Sigallah, Huruma L; Sambaiga, Faustine Richard; Vendelin, Simon; Shemaghembe, Emmanuel
    Zanzibar has recorded significant growth in tourism development in the last three decades. Large tourist resort hotels were built on the island from the 1990s, partly due to the decline of agriculture particularly clove cultivation after the establishment of Structural Adjustment Programme SAPs in the 1980s and associated free market economy and liberalization policies. Hotels increased from less than 10 in the 1980s to about 250 hotels by 2010 (ZTC, 2010). The number of international tourists rose from 19,368 in 1985 to 134,954 in 2009. Natural and cultural resources and their environs are increasingly targeted as prime tourism attractions and are increasingly protected or conserved, primarily for tourist seeks/tourism purposes. Pro-poor tourism proponents hold that tourism is benefiting and sustaining local people’s livelihood, the claim is supported by the WTO- seven ways through which tourism contribute net benefits to the poor (WTO, 2006). Empirical evidence to substantiate the claim is less clear, the claim affirmed by critical perspective and post structuralists. Poverty and inequality is increasing in the rural areas, as such, hope for sustainable tourism livelihood policy and practice is dwindling.
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    Can Environmental Tax Reduce Dilapidated Motor Vehicles Importation and Pollution? Insights from Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania
    (Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Dar es Salaam, 2022-06-29) Lema, A. Godwin
    The influence of tax regime in reducing dilapidated vehicles’ demand and attendant pollution is puzzling global south cities. This article provides an assessment on how environmental tax is or is not curbing down the importation of the Dilapidated Motor Vehicles (DMVs) with a view to reduce vehicular emissions in the city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A multilevel perspective employing mixed methods of data collection was used to collect qualitative and quantitative data through document review, group discussions, in-depth interviews from selected Members of Parliament, policymakers, government officials, and brand new as well as DMVs dealers. Content, trend and discourse analysis enabled to interpret qualitative data. Findings reveal that taxing importation of DMVs is not significantly reducing air pollution. The side effects of the increased DMVs import in polluting the environment are increasing due to the rise in income levels, population increase and technical challenges of estimating marginal social cost. As DMVs tax was not reflected in the exporter’s cost schedule, the non-inclusion gives a market failure scenario a la Pigou Theorem. Rethinking of an optimal environmental tax remains a complex sociopolitical issue calling for research and policy attention.
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    Data Quality Assessment to Improve Tuberculosis Reduction Program Performance in Coast Region, Tanzania
    (Population Studies and Research Centre University of Dar es Salaam, 2020-12-31) Lema, A. Godwin
    Data quality assessment is central in improving program performance. Reducing TB pandemic transmission is challenging in the global south. The success of interventions to address the pandemic depends upon the availability of sound and reliable data. This study applied a mixed research design to investigate the influence of data quality assessment on the performance of TB reduction program. We interviewed staff of several facilities composed of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) nurse in-charge, and TB coordinators, among others. We reviewed various TB-related documents and used key informant interviews and observation to collect data from selected health facilities. The findings indicated that the performance of the programs can be determined if the data reported meets the five data quality standards, and present accurately what is done at the facility level. Facilities with accurate, reliable and timely data enable the reduction of TB cases through informing adequate treatment to avoid spreading infection to the wider population unlike those with unreliable data. In this study, most of the health facilities data under-reported the number of TB cases, thus leading to poor program performance. We argue that, to improve program performance, data provided from different facilities should meet the five quality standards. The study recommends regular training of DOT nurses and improvement of monitoring and evaluation systems.
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    Measuring Individuals' travel behaviour by use of a GPS-based smartphone application in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
    (Elsevier, 2020-10) Joseph, Lucy; Neven, An; Marten, Karel; Kweka, Opportuna; Wets, Geert; Janssens, Davy
    A range of mega-cities in the Global South have started to invest in Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, as a complement or replacement for informal paratransit services, in an effort to improve the mobility and accessibility in the city. Yet, few studies have tried to analyse the impact of such systems on the mobility patterns of cities' residents, in part because traditional travel diary surveys are often too expensive to conduct and unsuitable to capture spatial mobility patterns in fast growing cities with a high level of informality in spatial development. In this study, we analyse the applicability of a new method of data collection, i.e. a GPS-based smartphone application, to capture individuals travel behaviour in fast growing mega-cities in the Global South. Our case study is the city of Dar es Salaam (DES) in Tanzania, where the first BRT line is currently being implemented. In our study, the GPS-based app was used by individuals in DES to record distances, departure times and destinations of their trips. Socio-demographic data of respondents were recorded in short questionnaires. The spatial distribution of the trip patterns shows the mobility demand in both high and less connected areas. The results reveal a variation in departure times, travel destinations and trip distances that are one the one hand spatially limited within neighbourhoods and away from the planned BRT, and on the other hand along major roads connecting to the Central Business District (CBD). The short average distances of the trips (<3 km) reveal the characteristics of paratransit modes. The GPS-based smartphone application provides an opportunity to policy makers to engage deeply with the spatial reality of local communities, as a basis for transport investments and policy improvements as steps towards an integrated public transport system.
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    Activity Participation and Perceptions on Informal Public Transport and Bus Rapid Transit in Dar es Salaam
    (SAGE, 2020-09-10) Joseph, Lucy; Neven, An; Marten, Karel; Kweka, Opportuna; Wets, Geert; Janssens, Davy
    This paper seeks to understand participation in out-of-home activities by inhabitants in Dar es Salaam, and their perceptions toward informal public transport (IPT) and bus rapid transit (BRT) in supporting these activities. Without fixed schedules, IPT (e.g., minibuses, motorcycles, and tricycles) is used as a means of transport for different trips. However, IPT is burdened by poor roads, traffic congestion, and high transport demand. Many developing cities are seeking to replace IPT with formal BRT lines. However, little is known in relation to the ability of IPT and BRT to support out-of-home activity participation of the inhabitants. This paper reports on a study in Dar es Salaam exploring the relative contribution of each type of service. The study took place before the opening of BRT, and encompasses focus group discussions, participatory geographical information systems, and questionnaires carried out in two study zones: one close to a BRT corridor and the other in a peri-urban location. The findings show that IPT was used to support participation in daily activities like work, education, shopping, and social matters; and was perceived to be flexible in providing access to both high and low density unplanned settlements. The BRT was viewed to benefit specific groups of people, especially individuals working in permanent offices in and around the city center, particularly professional workers. This paper sheds light on how the two systems were perceived by the local people and can inform policy makers about possible improvements in public transport systems to support activity participation of their inhabitants
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    Exploring changes in mobility experiences and perceptions after implementation of the bus rapid transit system in Dar es Salaam
    (Elsevier BV, 2021-06) Joseph, Lucy; Neven, An; Marten, Karel; Kweka, Opportuna; Wets, Geert; Janssens, Davy
    The use of Informal Public Transport (IPT) in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, has been associated with mobility difficulties, i.e. traffic congestion, unscheduled service and lack of safety and security. The introduction of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system was therefore considered as a powerful intervention for these mobility difficulties. In May 2016, the BRT started operating with exclusive bus lanes and a clear schedule to offer a qualitative, accessible and affordable system. This paper explores changes in travel experiences and perceptions of individuals (local inhabitants) regarding IPT and BRT use in meeting mobility demands before and after implementation of the BRT. Focus group discussions and short questionnaires were conducted before and after BRT to explore changes in mobility experiences among different individuals. Results show that in both periods, the demand for IPT use remained dominant, driven by a low fare, connectivity within a neighbourhood and outside the major road, flexibility and the possibility to commute with goods. The use of BRT was mainly attributed by relief in traffic congestion (when only considering in-bus time) and a lack of options along the corridor. Surprisingly, BRT users also experienced several mobility difficulties after implementation: long waiting time, overcrowding (in-bus and stations), and difficulties to commute with goods, and a lack of safety and security. Peri-urban individuals continued to experience more travel difficulties with both transport systems than individuals in areas adjacent to the BRT because of limited connectivity, congestion and unpaved local roads. For low-income individuals, the BRT was considered as another burden for their livelihoods (higher financial cost) rather than it was expected as a solution towards a high quality, accessible and affordable system. There is a need to integrate public transport with supportive improved local roads to serve multiple destinations
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    Community Disaster Risk Assessment in Arusha City, Tanzania
    (UDSM, 2017-12) Hambati, Herbert
    Urban population growth has demonstrated synergetic relationship with the growth of informal settlements and disasters, especially in developing countries. The increase in the density of people in informal settlements in Tanzania has accelerated their vulnerability to disaster risks. This study employs Community Participatory Disaster Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (PDRVA) to analyse vulnerability to disasters in informal settlements in Arusha city, Tanzania. The results show that a plethora of factors—human, physical, social, and economic—interact in a complex non-linear way to shape vulnerability to disasters in informal settlements in the city. Indigenous and western knowledge in the settlements used to cope with environmental hazards hold a great potential in shifting community responses to long-term considerations. The study recommends that measures and strategies aimed at reducing disaster risks should address the whole set of issues leading to poverty and disparities within the community.
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    Determinants of Farmers’ Adoption of Drought Resistant Crops in Adapting to Drought Impacts on Crop Production in Same District, Kilimanjaro Region
    (Geographical association of Tanzania, 2017) Lusiru, Sifuni; Mwamfupe, Asubisye
    Droughts’ intensity, duration, spatial coverage and frequency have been increasing with current climate change. Th is has been especially the case with arid and semi-arid tropical areas. Yet, farmers in such areas have persistently growing water intensive crops like maize, leading to poor production. Consequently, food insecurity and unsustainable livelihoods have been rampant. There is a broad scientific and political consensus that growing drought resistant crops (DRCs) is a sustainable drought adaptation strategy. The crops have anatomical and physiological characteristics enabling drought toleration, hence, improve water productivity (increase crop output per water input). Besides, adoption of DRCs is simple, cheap, easy and feasible for farmers to adopt compared to other strategies. Studies have shown that adoption of DRCs, even in drought prone areas, is very low. However, causes of low adoption of these crops are not adequately understood. This study aimed at analyzing determinants of farmers’ adoption of DRCs as an adaptation strategy to drought impacts. Data were collected from 281 farmers from four villages in Same district (a semi-arid and drought prone district in Tanzania). Th e study deployed logistic regression analysis and descriptive statistics to analyze such determinants. It was observed that adoption of DRCs is determined by a number of factors, including, access to climate information, access to agricultural extension services, food preference, location, sex of head of the household and farm size. Besides, adoption of DRCs is hampered by various barriers, including, cultural constraints, lack of knowledge, unpredictable rainfall, lack of access to climate information and lack of market. Other barriers were lack of seeds, lack of capital, destructive birds and forceful motivation approaches.
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    The political economy of petroleum investments and land acquisition standards in Africa: The case of Tanzania
    (Elsevier, 2017) Perdesen, Rasmus, Opportuna L. Kweka
    Much attention has been paid to community–investor relations in the petroleum sector in Africa, typically emphasising the responsibility of oil companies from the Global North to accommodate community interests. Empirical research that includes the role of the state actors in shaping these relations is limited. Based on empirical field research in mainland Tanzania, this article inscribes itself into an emerging body of literature that seeks to unpack land acquisition processes as a way to analyse relations among all the main actors. By focusing on struggles over the standards for the compulsory acquisition of land for petroleum investments, it points out that the political economy of land is decisive in determining the extent to which existing rights to land are accommodated. In this, the role of state authorities should not be underestimated. Their interactions with three ideal types of investors are analysed. The article demonstrates that investments originating in the Global South and in Tanzania have no less severe implications for land rights holders than those originating in Northern ones. This points to the need to expand the analytical focus in the petroleum literature from the behaviour of oil companies towards the broader political economy of land and petroleum investments. Whereas many investment processes may have been set in motion by Northern oil companies, they may not be the only actors, let alone the most important ones, influencing how land is acquired.
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    Social Accountability for Safe and Sustainable Domestic Water Provision in Dar es Salaam and Morogoro
    (University of Glasgow and University of Dar es Salaam, 2018) Munro, Neil and Opportuna L. Kweka
    This paper reports the full results of a baseline survey on access to water for domestic use and social accountability in four districts of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s largest city, and Morogoro, a provincial town around 200 kilometres west of Dar. From 7th to 29th March 2018, the survey team interviewed 2,154 adults about their access to water, perceptions of water quality, sanitation and hygiene facilities, readiness to pay for water services, social accountability for water provision, civic engagement and social demographics.
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    Socio-econmic Impact of Oil and Gas on Local Communities
    (University of Dar es Salaam, 2018-10) Kweka, Opportuna L., Faraja Namkesa, Zoe Jane Morrison, Pill Silvano
    This Chapter presents the early and expected impact of natural gas investments on coastal communities of Mtwara and Lindi. The Chapter is based on a study which was conducted in four villages and two streets where gas is extracted and or there is an investment or plan to invest. The main findings of the study is to challenge the methodology used in the resource curse theory show how one can study the potentiality of a resource curse at the beginning of an investment in at subnational scale.
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    Land cover changes and their determinants in the coral rag ecosystem of the South District of Unguja, Zanzibar
    (Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment (Academic Journals), 2018-09) Said, M.K.; Misana, S.B.
    The paper presents findings on the study on land cover changes and their determinants in the coral rag ecosystem of the South District of Unguja. The study is based on data extracted from the 1975, 2009, and 2014 satellite images using remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS) techniques. Additional data were collected through structured interviews in a household survey, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, transect walks and observation. The major changes detected in the study area from 1975 to 2014 were the decline of forests by 28.3% from 43.31 to 15% and the increase of semi-open forest and bush by 24.16% from 10.54 to 34.7. During the same time, settlements increased from 0.1to 4.9%. Different factors both direct and underlying have caused land cover change in the study area. Direct causes include shifting cultivation, cutting of wood for commercial firewood, charcoal, pegs and cutting of sticks for seaweed farming. The underlying ones are population growth, policy reforms and policy failure, land tenure insecurity, soil as well as the terrain and underlying rocks. If not properly addressed, land cover changes are likely to affect either positively or negatively the wildlife as well as the livelihoods of the communities. Investment in intensive cultivation and alternative sources of energy is required to reduce over-utilization of forest resources and to improve conservation and people's livelihoods.
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    Economic growth, rural assets and prosperity: exploring the implications of a 20-year record of asset growth in Tanzania
    (Cambridge University Press, 2018-07) Brockington, Dan; HOWLAND, OLIVIA; LOISKE, VESA-MATTI; MNZAVA, MOSES; Noe, Christine
    Measures of poverty based on consumption suggest that recent economic growth in many African countries has not been inclusive, particularly in rural areas. We argue that measures of poverty using assets may provide a different picture. We present data based on recent re-surveys of Tanzanian households fi rst visited in the early s. These demonstrate a marked increase in prosperity from high levels of poverty. It does not, however, follow that these improvements derive from GDP growth. We consider the implications of this research for further explorations of the relationship between economic growth and agricultural policy in rural areas.
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    Tanzania’s partnership landscape: Convergence and divergence in the wildlife sector
    (NEPSUS, 2017-03) Noe, Christine; Sulle, Emmanuel; Brockington, Dan
    Tanzania’s endowment of diverse biodiversity, wildlife resources and prime natural attraction sites put the country at the center of many debates about conservation, human welfare and development. As approaches for wildlife protection have evolved over time, so has the need for redressing the gap between nature and people through different kinds of partnerships. Based on are view of the existing literature, we examine the context in which partnerships have emerged in the wildlife sector in Tanzania, the processes that support acquisition and maintenance of legitimacy, as well as the sustainability outcomes of these partnerships. Specifically, the paper examines the historical trajectory of these partnerships and the influence that different actors have historically maintained hence determining how the public and private sector engagements evolved over time. We draw insights from the Selous game reserve with specific attention to the role of Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) as a converging point for many actors. The paper suggests that partnerships for wildlife protection have increased in number and scope. However, the assessment of their impacts has mainly focused on how much land has been secured for the protection of wildlife. Livelihood impacts of these partnerships have been largely assessed against the background of unequal terms of local community engagement with private investors, recentralization, the rise of local elites, corruption and the limitations that they place on local land use. We suggest that documenting how partnerships are formed, their different configurations and impacts should be an important step towards the analysis of the relations of power among different actors and with local communities, as well as a nuanced understanding of their ecological and livelihood outcomes.
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    Partnerships for wildlife protection and their sustainability outcomes: A literature review
    (NEPSUS, 2017) Noe, Christine; Budeanu, Adriana; Sulle, Emmanuel; Fog Olwig, Mette; Brockington, Dan; John, Ruth
    The rhetoric of a ‘win-win-win’ situation – which represents simultaneous achievement of economic growth, environmental protection and social development – is central to the emergence of community-based wildlife protection efforts that involve new partnerships between actors such as local communities, businesses and government agencies. The win-win rhetoric furthers the logic that the more partners, the more wins – yet the current knowledge base lacks clear criteria for evaluating partnerships. This working paper uses political ecology as a conceptual lens to propose such criteria. We suggest examining partnerships not only based on their complexity, but also how they are formed and gain legitimacy in different contexts and how various partnership configurations engender particular kinds of ecological and socio-economic outcomes. Based on a review of the literature about partnerships and their impacts, and drawing on insights from Tanzania’s wildlife sector, we establish three groups of literature that emphasize the benefits of partnerships: one focusing on landscape conservation, another on governance reforms and the last on tourism related businesses. In these three groups of literature, partnerships are claimed to improve the effectiveness of biodiversity governance by securing land, facilitating local developments and by creating business links. Building on critiques from political ecology we conclude by questioning this win-win-win rhetoric arguing that partnerships only lead to wins for specific actors thereby indirectly aggravating local power struggles. They do so by supporting rent seeking and the rise of local elites while simultaneously concealing the marginalization of other actors and thereby effectively contributing to the continued loss of local land rights.
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    Between dependence and deprivation: The interlocking nature of land alienation in Tanzania
    (Wiley Online Library, 2018-02-16) Bluwstein, Jevgeniy; Lund, Jens Friis; Askew, Kelly; Stein, Howard; Noe, Christine; Odgaard, Rie; Maganga, Faustin; Engström, Linda
    Studies of accumulation by dispossession in the Global South tend to focus on individual sectors, for example, large‐scale agriculture or nature conservation. Yet smallholder farmers and pastoralists are affected by multiple processes of land alienation. Drawing on the case of Tanzania, we illustrate the analytical purchase of a comprehensive examination of dynamics of land alienation across multiple sectors. To begin with, processes of land alienation through investments in agriculture, mining, conservation, and tourism dovetail with a growing social differentiation and class formation. These dynamics generate unequal patterns of land deprivation and accumulation that evolve in a context of continued land dependency for the vast majority of the rural population. Consequently, land alienation engenders responses by individuals and communities seeking to maintain control over their means of production. These responses include migration, land tenure formalization, and land transactions, that propagate across multiple localities and scales, interlocking with and further reinforcing the effects of land alienation. Various localized processes of primitive accumulation contribute to a scramble for land in the aggregate, providing justifications for policies that further drive land alienation.