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ItemThe 2005 Secondary School Curriculum Reforms in Tanzania: Disjunction between Policy and Practice in its Implementation(2005) Paulo, Albert; Tilya, FrankThe growing need for education system to produce school leavers with capabilities in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes useful for solving social and economic challenges has prompted education reforms in Tanzania. Recent education reform involved the introduction of competence-based curriculum in secondary schools. This paper reviewed recent research on the implementation of competence-based curriculum reforms in Tanzania and compare the findings with the original policy intentions to establish the congruence between the two. The paper has established that classroom teaching, learning and assessment in most secondary schools has remained traditional contrary to the competence-based curriculum demands. Lack of comprehensive orientation to the reformed curriculum for the teachers and poorly resourced learning environment are among many drawbacks to the implementation of the reformed curriculum. ItemAcademic Advising and Students’ Academic Achievement in Higher Education: Experiences from Dar es Salaam University College of Education in Tanzania(Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences, 2015) Kavenuke, Patrick SeverineAcademic advising in higher education is a mounting field of study that requires special attention as it is significant for enrolled university students to persist and retain to the point of graduation. This study aims to explore the contribution of academic advisors in enhancing students’ academic achievement in higher learning institutions. Data were collected from 58 respondents, including 48 students and 10 academic advisors both from the Faculty of Education of the Dar es Salaam University College of Education in Tanzania. The data collection methods were questionnaires, focused group discussions and unstructured interviews. A majority of student respondents (67%) revealed that their academic advisors had not contributed at all to their achievement. In contrast, 33% indicated that academic advisors had made contributions. The findings also indicated that among the challenges that students encountered when seeking for advisory services included the unavailability of academic advisors for advisory services, students’ lack of knowledge on academic advising, ability and readiness of academic advisors to the advisory roles, and psycho-social related issues. Thus, a quality academic advising programme is indispensable to increase students’ academic achievements in higher education. The study recommends a mutual relationship between the advisor and advisee that is based on trust and respect, shared responsibility and shared problem solving. ItemAccess, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for teaching and learning in Tanzania(2012-07) Kafyulilo, AyoubThis study explored the access, use and perceptions of teachers and students towards mobile phones as a tool for facilitating teaching and learning beyond the classroom walls. A total of 29 pre-service teachers and four college instructors from Dar es salaam University College of Education (DUCE) as well as 12 in-service teachers and 40 students from Kibasila secondary school in Tanzania, participated in the study. Data were collected by using pre-service teachers’ questionnaire, students’ questionnaire, and the instructors’, and in-service teachers’ interviews. Findings showed that all in-service teachers, college instructors and pre-service teachers had mobile phones. Also 60 % of school students owned mobile phones, or had access to mobile phones. Students, pre-service teachers and college instructors were in favour of the use of mobile phones for learning, but the majority of in-service teachers were against it. Since mobile phones are the most available technological tools in schools, this study, recommend a professional development programme for in-service teachers to help them develop a positive attitude towards mobile phones use in teaching and learning. ItemAN ACCOUNT OF INTERCULTURAL CONTACT IN NYAKYUSA PERSONAL NAMES(African Study Monographs, 2018) Lusekelo, AmaniThe impact of intercultural contact in African societies may be well articulated by examining personal names bestowed to children. The contact between different cultures yields different naming systems, apparent in the trends in personal names of children in the Nyakyusa community in Tanzania. Qualitative analysis of a sample of 220 personal names collected by the author yielded three layers: a layer of names with words and clauses with meaning in Nyakyusa language, another layer of names starting with mwa- which indicates the descent of the family, and yet another layer of nativized English, Swahili and/or Christian names. The findings were consistent with another sample of 786 names of primary school pupils in rural areas, foreign names accounted for about 60 percent of all names outnumbering, by far, the indigene names. It may follow that most parents in the Nyakyusa community opt for foreign names rather than native ones. This paper is a testimony that traditions in the Nyakyusa naming system are diminishing. ItemAdaptation of Sukuma Loanwords in the Western Dialects of Datooga (Taturu) and its Dialectological Implications(ETHNOLOGIA ACTUALIS, 2019) Lusekelo, AmaniThe exchange of linguistic materials between languages which come into contact is indeed reciprocal. The previous accounts of the outcome of contact between Datooga and Sukuma was skewed towards impact of Datooga on Sukuma. Based on ethnolinguistic vitality approach, the Datooga tend to reveal solidarity-related social identity by acquiring their language as a mother tongue. They also reveal prestige-related social identity by acquiring Sukuma language which is the prestigious lingua franca of the Itumba area in Igunga District. Moreover, the Datooga envisaged mechanisms to either isolate out-group members using their ethnonyms. Based on a list of 250 loanwords, this paper highlights the substitutive borrowing of kinship terms and additive borrowing of agricultural terms. The Sukuma loanwords penetrate into the Datooga lexicon. ItemAdditive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic Broadening and Narrowing in the Names of Architectural Structures in Tanzanian Bantu Languages(UJAH, 2017) Lusekelo, AmaniThe thrust of this paper lies on semantic changes associated with additive and substitutive borrowing in Bantu-speaking communities in Tanzania. Due to contact of languages, semantic differences of the terms related to architectural structures emanate. Apart from data from a few elderly native speakers, research was carried out with the help of undergraduate students of linguistics. Further linguistic materials analysed herein come from dictionaries and lexicons. Although retention of the proto- Bantu words are apparent, findings indicate that cases of additive borrowing are obvious for new concepts associated with new architectural structures. The additive Swahili names incorporated into Tanzanian Bantu tend to designate specific concepts associated with modern (contemporary) architectural senses such as mulango ‘modern door’ vs. luigi ‘traditional entranceway’. Cases of substitutive borrowing are rare, as demonstrated by the Swahili word dirisha ‘window’ which replaces chitonono in Chimakonde, echihúru in Runyambo, ilituulo in Kinyakyusa etc. ItemAffinity between Poetry and Philosophy: Investigation of Muzale’s Nakuomba(Kioo cha Lugha, Vol. 12, 2014:113-130, 2014) Samwel, MethodPoetry is a literary work which, as other genres of literature, performs two main functions in the society, educating and entertaining. In so doing, poetry, like philosophy, questions existing concepts and ideas, clarifies them, critically analyses those concepts and ideas and formulates a world view in a logical manner. Also, poetry, just like philosophy, is filled with wisdom which if accepted and utilized by the society, is likely to enhance socio-economic and political development. This paper is of the view that what philosophy and poetry do is similar to the extent that philosophy and poetry can be treated the same. That is to say, poets are philosophers of some kind. To present that, the paper analyses philosophical values of Muzale’s Nakuomba poems. Ushairi ni kazi ya fasihi ambayo, kama tanzu nyingine za fasihi, una dhima kuu mbili katika jamii, kuelimisha na kuburudisha. Katika kutimiza dhima hizo, ushairi, kama ilivyo falsafa, huhoji dhana na mawazo yaliyopo, hufafanua, na kuhakiki dhana na mawazo yaliyopo katika jamii, na huunda mtazamo mpya wenye mantiki zaidi. Aidha, ushairi, kama tu ilivyo falsafa, umejaa mambo mbalimbali ya busara ambayo kama yatakubaliwa na kutekelezwa na jamii, yanaweza kuleta maendeleo ya kijamii, kiuchumi na kisiasa. Makala haya yanaibua hoja kuwa ushairi na falsafa zina majukumu yanayofanana sana katika jamii kiasi kwamba ushairi na falsafa huweza kuchukuliwa kama vitu vinavyofanana sana. Hii ni kusema kuwa, washairi ni wanafalsafa kwa namna fulani. Ili kubainisha hilo, makala yanachambua masuala mbalimbali ya kifalsafa yanayobainika katika mashairi yaliyomo katika diwani ya Muzale ya Nakuomba. ItemAfrican Philosophy: A Link Between Modern and Traditional African Poetry,(Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences, Volume 3 Nos. 1 & 2, 2014:27-44, 2014) Samwel, MethodThis article argues that traditional and modern praise poetry do relate. This relationship is from the fact that the two are similar in several aspects ranging from content to form. Only one similarity among them, similarity in philosophy, is discussed here. The article, therefore, presents how different kinds of African poetry of different generations can never diverge totally from African philosophy. That is to say, both traditional and modern praise poetry carry similar beliefs; how Africans see things is viewed in similar way in the two kinds of poetry. Traditional praise poetry used here is Bahaya’s praise poetry, ebyebugo, and the praises seen in Basukuma songs while modern poetry used here is Bongo Flavor praise poetry. Bahaya and Basukuma are people who live in North – Western and Lake Zone in Tanzania. Bongo Flavor is Tanzanian youth music which is characterized by self praises. Therefore, we can simply say this article picks Tanzanian traditional and modern praise poetry as samples of African traditional and modern poetry respectively. ItemAgreement between nPs and modifiers in Bantu DPs(Dar es Salaam University College of Education, 2018) Ndomba, Rodrick GregoryAgreement is one of the conspicuous characteristics of structural relations holding among the categories or elements in syntactic constituents—clauses and phrases—in Bantu languages. This paper focuses on agreement relations in nominal phrases, specifically agreement between nouns (nPs) and respective elements, also called modifiers, in Bantu languages. The paper is premised around the Noam Chomsky’s minimalist approach, which assumes that items or elements in a phrase or clause standing in an agreement configuration are arranged via successive Merger binary operations taking place in a bottom-up fashion. Using evidence from Kiswahili, the paper argues that the agreement between head nouns and its modifiers of DP in Bantu languages stem from the raising of the head noun – nP. The approach to deriving agreement in Bantu DPs pursued departs from head specifier relations via government and the raising of N to class prefix via probe goal relations. The paper has assumed that proper agreement is a function of syntactic operations, specifically the raising of XP (nP) to Spec DP. ItemAlternatives to local content requirements in resource-rich countries(Oxford Development Studies, 2017-12) Kinyondo, Abel; Kolstad, IvarThis paper discusses whether and to what extent resource-rich developing countries should introduce local content policies, i.e. requirements to include local inputs in petroleum extraction activities of multinational corporations. We argue that local content needs to be seen as a public expenditure question, since local content requirements increase multinational costs, and hence reduce the taxes which can be extracted from these companies. This implies that there are opportunity costs in imposing local content requirements, since the forgone taxes can be used in others ways which could potentially do more to improve development prospects. Moreover, past experiences of resource-rich developing countries suggest that local content policies can exacerbate key problems of patronage and rent-seeking which resource rents generate, increasing the chance that the resource wealth will prevent rather than help development. These arguments suggest that an optimal local content policy in the context of flawed institutions is a more limited one than those typically pursued by developing countries with recently discovered petroleum reserves. Using qualitative data from Tanzania, a country with recent discoveries of substantial natural gas deposits, we analyze why local content tends to become such a central issue in debates and policy processes, despite its potentially problematic aspects. ItemAnalysis of Structure and Diversity of the Kilengwe Forest in the Morogoro Region, Tanzania(International Journal of Biodiversity, 2014) Kacholi, David SylvesterThis study investigates the structure, species composition, and diversity of a section of the Kilengwe Forest in Tanzania. In order to accomplish the proposed objectives, 18 plots of 20m× 20m were randomly established in the forest and the number of tree species in each plot was identified and counted. The most important families and species were determined using importance value indices at the respective taxonomic levels. Diversity was measured using the Shannon-Wiener and Fisher alpha diversity indices. A total of 276 stems/ha representing 93 species/ha within 26 families were documented from 0.72 ha. Fabaceae and Julbernadia globiflora were the dominant family and species, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the total species were rare.The average basal area of the forest was 7.1m2/ha. The Shannon-Wiener index (4.02) and Fisher’s alpha diversity (35.5) indicated high species diversity within the forest. The species-area and species-abundance curves revealed an escalating trend implying that more sampling efforts could result in a higher number of species existing in the forest. The size class distribution displayed a reverse J-shaped pattern; however, the larger size classes DBH >50 cm were not represented.The study suggests the necessity for anthropogenic disturbance control as this is the major source of forest degradation in the studied area. ItemThe Apparition of the Perceived Enemy: National Identity and Peace Building in South Sudan.(The Open University of Tanzania, 2020-08-03) Masabo, Conrad JohnBetween July 8th and 11th, 2016 an intense fighting erupted in South Sudan. This was the second instance to the previous fighting that broke-out between December 15th and 18th, 2013 and both happened in Juba the capital city of the country. These revealed that, South Sudan was not only the newest nation in the world, but also the youngest nation facing many dilemmas in forging for national identity and consolidating peace. These incidences require scholars to be sober and surpass the oversimplifications of the causes of this mayhem. Thus, understanding these challenges calls for re-considering and re-framing the understanding of the real enemy, to forge a healthy national identity that the country needs. In this journey, I challenge South Sudanese to re-think reflectively and critically if they are to understand the manifestation of the postcolonial–neo-colonial image of imperialism that have not allowed meaningful transition and state building and unlearn the perceived misunderstanding, and invitation is for them to embrace roles of democracy, nationhood, and governance in peace and nation building. As this paper advances, it is by embracing such reconsiderations that nation building, and the identity formation among South Sudanese, the prospects newly country of South Sudan will be possible. ItemAre Pre-service Teachers Prepared to Teach? Investigating their Locus of Control, Self-efficacy and Attitude towards the Teaching Profession and Teaching Subjects(Papers in Education and Development No.38 (2), 2020, 2020-09-30) Kinyota, MjegeThe study examined pre-service teachers’ preparedness to teach using a sample of final-year students (n=454) in a Tanzanian teacher education university. The study measured pre-service teachers’ preparedness to teach using four dimensions—internal locus of control, self-efficacy, attitude towards the teaching profession and attitude towards teaching subjects. With exceptions of relatively low teachers’ attitude towards the teaching profession, results indicated that student teachers have higher levels of self-efficacy, positive internal locus of control and positive attitude towards teaching subjects. Also, a significant difference (p ˂ 0.05) was found between teaching subjects on the dimension of locus of control with social science majors having higher locus of control than science and mathematics majors. Future employment intentions had significant impacts (p ˂ 0.05) on student teachers’ attitude towards teaching with those intending to work in non teaching sector having significantly lower attitude. Regression results indicated that working with students and pre-service teachers’ persistence were strong predictors of overall pre-service teachers’ attitude towards teaching (R² = 0.319). Results further revealed that 40.2 % of pre-service teachers regret that they chose the teaching profession and 56.2% are not intending to work as teachers after graduation. ItemAre Pre-service Teachers Prepared to Teach? Investigating their Locus of Control, Self-efficacy and Attitude towards the Teaching Profession and Teaching Subjects(Papers in Education and Development, 2020) Kavenuke, Patrick SeverineThe study examined pre-service teachers’ preparedness to teach using a sample of final-year students (n=454) in a Tanzanian teacher education university. The study measured pre-service teachers’ preparedness to teach using four dimensions—internal locus of control, self-efficacy, attitude towards the teaching profession and attitude towards teaching subjects. With exceptions of relatively low teachers’ attitude towards the teaching profession, results indicated that student teachers have higher levels of self-efficacy, positive internal locus of control and positive attitude towards teaching subjects. Also, a significant difference (p ˂ 0.05) was found between teaching subjects on the dimension of locus of control with social science majors having higher locus of control than science and mathematics majors. Future employment intentions had significant impacts (p ˂ 0.05) on student teachers’ attitude towards teaching with those intending to work in non-teaching sector having significantly lower attitude. Regression results indicated that working with students and pre-service teachers’ persistence were strong predictors of overall pre-service teachers’ attitude towards teaching (R² = 0.319). Results further revealed that 40.2 % of pre-service teachers regret that they chose the teaching profession and 56.2% are not intending to work as teachers after graduation. ItemAre small-scale coffee farmers in Tanzania safe from potential agrochemical health hazards? Week in Review, Biosciences for Farming in Africa (B4FA).(Biosciences for Farming in Africa, 2016-01-15) Bakuza, Jared S.http://b4fa.org/are-small-scale-coffee-farmers-in-tanzania-safe-from-potential-agrochemical-health-hazards/ ItemAre they Stress-Free? Examining Stress among Primary School Teachers in Tanzania(University of Ljubljana, 2021-11) Kavenuke, Patrick Severine; kayombo, Joel Jonathan; Kinyota, MjegeTeachers enter the profession with enthusiasm for the new adventure. Unfortunately, when they start working, they encounter circumstances that give rise to stress. Te present study, which used a sample of 550 participants from 50 primary schools selected from the Kisarawe district in the Coastal Region of Tanzania, examines the extent of stress among primary school teachers and the factors inﬂuencing stress. Overall, the results indicate that teachers’ levels of stress range from low to moderate. Moreover, the results from hierarchical regression analysis indicate that factors such as sex, class size, age, career intentions and teaching subject significantly predict teachers’ stress. Te study concludes that there is a need for the government, policymakers and school administrators to reduce teachers’ workload. Furthermore, school administrators in particular should be supportive and should design mechanisms that could develop a sense of collegiality among teachers in order to improve teacher-to-teacher relationships. ItemAre they Stress-Free? Examining Stress among Primary School Teachers in Tanzania(Center for Educational Policy Journal, 2021-11-30) Kinyota, Mjegeeachers enter the profession with enthusiasm for the new adventure. Unfortunately, when they start working, they encounter circumstances that give rise to stress. The present study, which used a sample of 550 participants from 50 primary schools selected from the Kisarawe district in the Coastal Region of Tanzania, examines the extent of stress among primary school teachers and the factors influencing stress. Overall, the results indicate that teachers’ levels of stress range from low to moderate. Moreover, the results from hierarchical regression analysis indicate that factors such as sex, class size, age, career intentions and teaching subject significantly predict teachers’ stress. The study concludes that there is a need for the government, policymakers and school administrators to reduce teachers’ workload. Furthermore, school administrators in particular should be supportive and should design mechanisms that could develop a sense of collegiality among teachers in order to improve teacher-to-teacher relationships. ItemAre we experiencing a ‘post-method’ era in second language teaching?(Journal of Education, Humanities, and Sciences, 2015) Ndomba, Rodrick GregoryApproaches to Second Language teaching have been changing over time. The pivotal force behind the changes globally has been the quest for the best approach. New methods have emerged as old ones are discarded, with less prospects to achieve the best. This paper revisits the chronology of events characterizing the war of methods globally, and highlights key current issues underlining English language teaching in Tanzanian secondary schools. Central to the battle on methods is the need for proper preparation of English language teachers amid claims that their linguistic and methodological standards have been on the decline over decades. Indeed, the switch to competence-based curriculum (CBC) in the current English language curriculum in the Tanzanian system of education invariably calls for an assessment of the Second Language teaching profession in the ‘post-method’ era. ItemAssessing Digital Fluency among Teacher-Educators in University Schools of Education: The case of Tanzania(The IRES International Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2020-03-03) Fulgence, KatherineThis study assesses digital fluency among university teacher educators given its relevance in education industry. Digital fluency refers to educators‘ knowledge about digital tools and ability to make critical, creative, and autonomous blending of their potentials to realize teaching and learning objectives. Largely, the teacher education curriculum the educators studied did not integrate digital fluency as a key competence making the subject of interest to explore. The study established dimensions of digital fluency as a concept through literature review. The study used SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition) model with its four levels of technology integration as a framework for assessing teacher educators‘ digital fluency. Data were collected through survey and interviews from 90 teacher educators at the university level including the management in schools of education. Findings show that most of the teacher educators perceive to have digital fluency at the substitution level, which is the lowest level. Educators with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and science backgrounds sound to be more digitally fluent compared to the ones from the fields of humanities and social sciences, partly due to discipline exposure. The study contributes knowledge towards digital fluency as a key competence for teacher educators. Higher Education Institutions need to explore mechanisms for developing digital fluency skills in line with the preparation of 21st century teachers taking into consideration variations among educators‘ disciplines. Further research can shed light on the competence profile of digitally fluent teacher educators. ItemAssessing S. mansoni prevalence in Biomphalaria snails in the Gombe region of Western Tanzania: the importance of DNA sequence data for clarifying species identification(Parasite & Vectors, 2017) Bakuza, Jared S.; Gilespie, Robert; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Adam, Aileen; Kilbride, Elizabeth; Mable, Marble K.