Browsing Dar es Salaam University College of Education by Issue Date
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ItemMisconceptions about Adult Education Innovations in the United Republic of Tanzania(Springer, 1988) Mushi, Philemon A. K.T h e need to provide education to adults in the United Republic of Tanzania, has been the major concern of the Party and government ever since the Adult Education Year of 1970. In spite of various adult education innovations that have been introduced in the country to date, the majority of the recipients are functionally illiterate. These innovations which are, inter alia, functional literacy, post literacy, workers' education, and para-literacy have not enabled the adult learners to improve their living conditions. In the countryside, poor housing and health conditions, conservative cultural beliefs, deforestation as well as soil erosion are the order of the day. While it is true that the national literacy rate is 85 per cent, the figure refers to the acquisition of the three Rs (reading, writing and simple arithmetic) and not to the functional aspects. This explains wh y adult educational innovations have failed to transform people's living conditions, for they have tended to be conceptualized at the level of literacy per se by the implementors. Th e way the innovations are introduced and understood, determine to a larger extent the way such innovations are implemented. ItemOrigins and Development of Adult Education Innovations in Tanzania(Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991) Mushi, Philemon A. K.A number of adult education innovations were introduced in Tanzania in the late 1960s and early 1970s. This article analyzes the context of three innovations, namely functional literacy, workers' education and the programme of the Folk Development Colleges. The analysis reveals that these innovations had firm roots within the socio-economic conditions prevailing in the country in the 1960s and 1970s, Nyerere's influence as President and Party leader, Tanzania's ideology of development, the policy of popular participation, the roots of educational policy in a humanistic philosophy of education, and indigenous education. Some of the factors which affected their implementation included lack of trained educators, inadequate financial resources, ineffective evaluation mechanisms, and a mis-match between participants' needs and actual programmes. It is suggested that there is a need to introduce economic innovations alongside educational innovations, to involve participants in determining their training needs, and to train and retain adult educators with a view to improving adult education initiatives in the country. ItemHuman Resources Development for ... Managing SAPs and Integrating Environmental Concerns in Tanzania(1994) Katabaro, Joviter K.; Mbeaez, A. V. Y.Developments in the World Economy in the 1980s, and certainly the 1990s as well, have witnessed polarity of development experiences between developed and developing countries. The disappointing performance of the economies of the latter countries, especially the issue of poverty, led to debates centering around policies that will bailout these economies. Among the regions that have been a subject of much research and policy prescriptions is Sub-Saharan Africa, with the 1980s and 1990s being basically a period of structural adjustment programmes designed to improve macroeconomic performance. After almost a decade of implementing SAPs in most Sub-Saharan African countries, the debate is now even more heated-on whether adjustment does or does not work. The World Bank, the architect of SAPs, is on the defensive pointing out that SAPs can work given certain conditions (Husain, 1994). ItemThe Fortunes and Demise of Literacy Drive in Tanzania(1995) Mushi, Philemon A. K. ItemStructural Analysis of Code-switching in Tanzanian Swahili-English Online Telecom Adverts(Journal of Education, Humanities and Sciences, 2001-12-01) Ilonga, EmmanuelThis study analyses structural configurations of code-switching from Swahili-English online business-related advertisements in Tanzania. The study uses advertisements disseminated by telecom corporations on Facebook. Through the matrix language frame (MLF), and the 4–M models of code-switching, the study discloses the dominance of Swahili as the matrix language (ML), supplying a relatively higher quantity of content morphemes (CM) in clauses; whilst English becomes the embedded language (EL). The Swahili’s supremacy in larger mixed language structures reflects the higher application of Swahili in day-to-day interactions in Tanzania, while English ‘chips in’ at times. In bundle names, which are phrases in structure, the study shows English as the ML; and Swahili as the EL. Further analyses indicate that both early system morphemes (early SMs), which are bound in nature, and bridge late system morphemes which are free in nature, come from Swahili. Similarly, coming from Swahili too, outsider late system morphemes are attached to content morphemes. Generally, Swahili and English partake in mixed language constructions with variations in terms of quantity, types, morpheme properties, and the syntactic properties of linguistic structures. ItemThe Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education and Institutionalizing Preventive Education(International Institute for Educational Planning, 2002) Carr-Hill, Roy A.; Katabaro, Joviter K.; Katahoire, Anne R.; Oulai, DramaneAs a new millennium dawns, the HIV/AIDS pandemic continuesto ravage Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): at least 40 million people areinfected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Much of the impact of HIV/AIDS afflicts children and women: indeed the bulk of new AIDS casesare among young people, aged 15-25 and females aredisproportionately affected. The ability of girls and women to protectthemselves from HIV is constrained by their status in society. ItemIndigenous Tree Uses, Use-Values and Impact of Human Population on Forest Size, Structure and Species Richness in Uluguru, Morogoro, Tanzania(Tanzania Journal of Science, 2004) Kacholi, David SylvesterThis study assesses tree uses and use-values as well as impacts of human population on the forest size, species richness, basal area and stand density in the Uluguru forests in Morogoro Region. Interview with locals on the tree uses were done using structured questionnaires and use-value analysis techniques were used in analysing data. Trees with a diameter at breast height ≥ 10 cm measured at 1.3 m above the ground were sampled from a total of 114 plots of 20 m x 20 m (0.04 ha) from the seven forests. A total of 42 species belonging to 20 families were listed being useful for the local livelihoods. Of the listed species, 88% serve more than one function while 64% are used for firewood and charcoaling, 45%, and 40%, are used for timber and medicinal purposes, respectively. Milicia excelsa and Sterculia quinqueloba had highest and lowest total use-value, respectively. Ocotea usambarensis is known to treat 29% of diseases while 47% and 25% of the species with medicinal values are used to treat stomach-ache and dysentery. Roots are the most utilized tree part for making traditional medicines, followed by barks and leaves. The human population density revealed a significant negative correlation with forest size (r = -0.90), species richness (r = -0.78), and stand density (r = -0.75). The study suggests for control of human population and their associated activities, provision of awareness on sustainable utilization of forest resources, use of alternative source of energy by locals and active involvement of the locals in management and conservation programmes. ItemThe 2005 Secondary School Curriculum Reforms in Tanzania: Disjunction between Policy and Practice in its Implementation(2005) Paulo, Albert; Tilya, FrankThe growing need for education system to produce school leavers with capabilities in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes useful for solving social and economic challenges has prompted education reforms in Tanzania. Recent education reform involved the introduction of competence-based curriculum in secondary schools. This paper reviewed recent research on the implementation of competence-based curriculum reforms in Tanzania and compare the findings with the original policy intentions to establish the congruence between the two. The paper has established that classroom teaching, learning and assessment in most secondary schools has remained traditional contrary to the competence-based curriculum demands. Lack of comprehensive orientation to the reformed curriculum for the teachers and poorly resourced learning environment are among many drawbacks to the implementation of the reformed curriculum. ItemChild Sexual Abuse among University Students in Tanzania(Elsevier, 2006) McCrann, Denis; Lalor, Kevin; Katabaro, Joviter K.Child sexual abuse is a serious breach of basic human rights and is responsible for numerous adverse sequelae (Roberts, O’Connor, Dunn, & Golding, 2004; Steel, Sanna, Hammond, Whipple, & Cross 2004); its wide-spread presence in both developing and developed countries is well documented (Finkelhor, 1994; Back, Jackson, Fitzgerald, Shaffer, Salstrom, & Osman, 2003; McGee, Garavan, de Barra, Byrne & Conroy, 2003). Gorey and Leslie (1997) reported a 22.3% prevalence rate of child sexual abuse among women and 8.5% prevalence rate among men from an aggregate of 16 studies. A review of about 30 studies of community and convenience samples found widely varying estimates of the prevalence of child sexual abuse ranging from 3% to 30% for males and from 6% to 62% for females (Fergusson & Mullen, 1999). Child sexual abuse appears to be a universal phenomenon; wherever it has been sought out it has been found (Finkelhor, 1994). The latter study reported that most perpetrators were male and that one third of sexual abuse was intra-familial. ItemReligion and Provision of Education and Employment in Tanzania: In Justice, Rights and Worship: Religionand Politics in Tanzania(E & D, 2006) Mushi, Philemon A. K. ItemSamatengo noun phrase structure(University of Dar es Salaam, 2006) Ndomba, Rodrick GregoryTHE study on Samatengo Noun Phrase Structure draws experiences from earlier works on the nominal morphology of the nouns in Bantu languages. The morphology of the nouns has been one of the leading factors in classifying Bantu languages and at the same time grouping nouns into gender classes. Studies by Johnston (1919, 1922) and Guthrie (1948, 1967 – 1971, 1970) based on the morphological analysis of the noun in the Bantu languages. Recent studies like that of Maho (1999), Katamba (Nurse and Philippson, 2003:103 - 120), Kahigi (2005) and Rugemalira (2005, 2006a, 2006b) have gone further looking into concordial patterns of the noun classes with the aim of analyzing the noun class markers in more broad parameters. This study, however, has made a leap forward by including an analysis of different elements in the entire structure of the noun phrase. Besides looking solely at noun classification and their concords, this study describes the noun phrase structure in terms of noun class dependents – their forms and semantic characteristics, agreement forms, derivation processes and the ordering and co-occurrence of the noun and its dependent elements. The study reveals that noun pairing in Samatengo has great variability, which can be attested to particular semantic roles. Overlaps come to defeat semantic criteria for noun class analysis. In terms of the derivation process, nouns in Samatengo are productive showing different ways of deriving new nouns. Included in the analysis is the order of elements – dependents – that co-occur with the noun head in a phrase structure. The study establishes flexibility in terms of some dependents while others seem to have more restricted occurrences. ItemPrevalence and Implications of Overweight and Obesity in Children's Health and Learning Behavior: The Case of Kinondoni and Njombe Districts in Tanzania(2008-09) Kafyulilo, Ayoub C.The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which overweight and obesity are challenges among primary school children in Kinondoni and Njombe districts. The study sought to investigate those aspects in terms of prevalence, causes and impacts on social, health as well as children learning behaviours and outcomes. Systematic random sampling was used to select schools while stratified sampling and simple random sampling were used in selecting pupils and teachers. Measurement of weights and height were done to determine Body Mass Index (BMI), measurements of skinfolds were also done to determine body fat percentage. Questionnaires, semi-structured interview schedule and focus group discussion guides were also used. Findings revealed an average of 13.5% children, were overweight and obese. Economy status, household occupations, nutrition and inactivity were significant causes of overweight and obesity. Hypertension, excessive sweating, teasing and peer rejection were common to obese children. In addition, overweight and obese children were reported to underperform in academic and physical activities. The study revealed that overweight and obesity were not friendly healthy conditions to children, thus a need to work it out. The study suggests for establishment of education programs through mass Medias, to raise people's awareness on implications of obesity in children's health, social, and learning behaviours and outcomes. Seven appendixes are included: (1) Pupils' Questionnaires; (2) Pupils' Focus Group Discussion Guide; (3) Teachers' Interviews; (4) Number of Children and their Weight Status in both Rural and Urban Settings (BMI Results); (5) Percentage of Children According to their Weight Status and Performance Grades in the Classroom; (6) Factors Causing Overweight and Obesity among School Children and their Level of Significance; and (7) A Map of Kinondoni and Njombe Showing the Surveyed Schools. ItemExamining Career Orientations Of Information Systems Personnel in an Emerging Economy Context(2008-12) Mgaya, Klodwig V.; Uzoka, Faith M. E.; Kitindi, Ernest G.; Shemi, AliceA number of studies on career orientations of information systems (IS) personnel have focused on developed countries. This study attempts to examine career anchors of IS personnel from the perspective of a developing country, Botswana. The results of the study show that IS personnel in Botswana exhibit career orientations similar to those identified in literature. However, there are some variations, which are attributed to cultural and socio-economic peculiarities. The study indicates that life style does not feature as a significant career anchor in Botswana. The dominant career anchors include organizational stability (security) and sense of service (service). Gender, age, and educational qualifications tend to moderate the career anchors significantly; thus creating a partition of the anchors across demographic groups. ItemThe Structure of the Nyakyusa Noun Phrase(Nordic Journal of African Studies, 2009) Lusekelo, AmaniThis article articulates the structure of the noun phrase in the Bantu language Nyakyusa. The aim of the study is to move a step ahead from the focus on concords across Bantu languages to the analysis of the order of elements within the noun phrase. As scholars have paid less attention to the syntax of the noun and its dependents (Rugemalira 2007), then the analysis of the order of elements in the Nyakyusa noun phrases is necessary. This study found the following: (i) the dominant attested order of the elements in a Nyakyusa noun phrase is N > [(Poss)(Dem)] > [(Num)(Quant)(A)] > [(Int)(Rel)], (ii) both the possessive and demonstrative may occur immediately after the head noun, but when the possessive immediately follows the head noun it must drop a pre-prefix. Also, the demonstrative can not precede the head noun if so, the meaning changes; (iii) hypothetically, with recurrence, more than seven elements can co-occur within a single noun phrase. ItemSocial Entrepreneurship in Tanzania: Assessment of Enabling Environment(EMES Conferences Selected Papers Series, ECSP-T09-03., 2009) Fulgence, Katherine; Mori, NeemaThe main purpose of the study was to assess the supporting environment for social entrepreneurship in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at evaluating the current key stakeholders’ conceptualisation and recognition of Social Entrepreneurship concept and whether in Tanzania there is a supportive environment for Social Entrepreneurship. This was an exploratory study and was conducted qualitatively. The approach used was a combination of secondary data and in-depth interviews with policy makers and policy advisers. Findings revealed that most stakeholders are not aware of the concept of Social Entrepreneurship. The objectives of their organizations showed that they had some elements of Social Entrepreneurship, but this concept was not encompassed in their mission statements. Social entrepreneurship matters were thus not well integrated in their policy missions although the nature of organizational activities revealed some elements in them. The study concluded that social entrepreneurship in Tanzania has been practiced by several institutions especially non-governmental organisations and that there is a need to document and institutionalizes the policies and regulations that guide the operationalization of the social entrepreneurship concept. Recommendations and areas for further research are also discussed. ItemDeterminants of loan repayment performance in microcredit institutions: Evidence from Tanzania(Asia-African Journal of Economics and Econometrics, 2009) Kinyondo, Abel; Okurut, NathanThis study investigated the key factors that influence loan repayment performance among group clients of microcredit institutions (MFIs) in Tanzania. This was motivated by the fact that sustainability of MFIs is critical for poverty reduction among the poor through sustainable access to credit. Sustainability of microcredit institutions is greatly influenced by the loan repayment performance of their clients. High repayment rates enable MFIs to recover interest income and minimize loan losses which enhance profits. In turn, these profits enhance the capital base which enables microcredit institutions to increase their outreach and reduce their dependence on donors. The study was based on a sample of 150 respondents from PRIDE and FINCA in Kariakoo Division, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The logit model regression results suggest that experience, training time, and sanctions have positive and significant effects on loan repayment performance among group clients of MFIs. However transaction costs and group size have negative and significant effects on loan repayment performance. The policy options to improve loan repayment performance among group clients of MFIs in Tanzania include: encouraging long term relationship with groups (i.e. client retention), adequate training of groups, establishing lasting social sanctions within the groups and by the microcredit institutions, cutting down transaction costs incurred by groups and encouraging more coordination amongst MFIs through the creation of a credit reference bureau. ItemVariation over Time in Parasite Prevalence Among Free-ranging Chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania(International Journal of Primatology, 2009) Bakuza, Jared S.; Nkwengulila, GambaFrom January to September, 2005, we collected fecal samples from 60 chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania and examined them for parasites. We compared current parasite prevalence data with previous studies to obtain a pattern of parasitism over time. There were considerable similarities in the parasite species composition and prevalence, although we noted some variations. Generally, parasite prevalence decreased over time, with the present prevalence being lower than in previous surveys. We identified 8 types of parasites, all of which had previously been documented in the chimpanzees of Gombe. Three nematodes — Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides fulleborni, and Abbreviata caucassica— occurred at higher prevalence (41.2–45.5%) but relatively lower than previous findings of 50–91%. We also diagnosed unidentified strongyles at a moderate prevalence (33%), lower than a previous record of 41%. Probstmayria gombensis occurred at relatively low prevalence (16.4%) vs. past observations (23–59%), while the prevalence of Trichuris sp. (7.3%) was closely similar to previous records of 5– 9%. We also observed unidentified ciliate at 9% within the same range as in previous studies (5–28%). The prevalence of Troglodytella abrassarti was 78%, closely similar to previous findings of 75%. There was no significant variation in parasite prevalence between chimpanzees of the Kasekela community and those of the Mitumba community, although the former tended to have higher prevalence of helminths than the latter. The causes of the similarities and variations in parasite prevalence over time are discussed. The study provides baseline data for monitoring of chimpanzee health at Gombe. ItemGender Inequalities in Buha (Kigoma) and the Role of Gender Mainstreaming to Alliviate Them(Salvatorian Institute of Philosophy and Theology, 2009-06) Masabo, Conrad JohnGender issues and debates on gender are ever growing to dominate the local and international politics, law, economy and social policies. The debate are hot and even now penetrating to the formerly spheres that were for quite long left un-penetrated such as those structures of religion. Gender can be defined as the social determined roles and relations between males and females. In this regard, these social constructed roles and relations have resulted into tremendous gender inequalities that need to be addressed anew with a different methodology or strategy. They call for critical and purposely attention from anyone who hopes to contribute towards making this world a better place for living. It attracts re-assessing of our understanding and the extent we are ready to promote and propagate for human rights, common good and social justice. This paper discusses gender inequality theories that best explain the existing gender inequalities among the Ha people living in Kigoma Region and explaining how gender mainstreaming strategy can be employed to reduce the existing gender inequalities. To meet the demands of the task our essay will have a part giving the region profile of demographic, geographical, historical and political data. This will be followed by a part highlighting some of the existing gender inequalities among the Buha Communities, then a part discussing the selected gender inequalities theories and lastly a part devoted to expose the methodology to follow in using gender mainstreaming strategy to reduce these inequalities. ItemTeacher’s Knowledge, Beliefs and Pedagogical Practices in Integrating ICTs in different Curriculum Areas in Secondary Schools(2010) Mwalongo, AlcuinThis study set to explore teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and pedagogical practices in integrating information and communications technology (ICT) in curriculum areas in a private secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan, through a case study of four teachers. Data were collected through classroom observations, interviews, informal conversations and analysis of documents, and analysed using QSR NUD*IST. It was found that teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and pedagogical practices significantly influenced how teachers integrated ICT in the curriculum areas. Due to limited time, the study could not trace longer how the teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and pedagogical practices changed over time, thus, a longitudinal study is needed to trace how teachers’ knowledge, beliefs and pedagogical practices change over time.