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ItemApproaches to the Study of African Political Thought(Taamuli: A Political Science Forum, 1977) Mukandala, Rwekaza S. ItemContributor to Alternative Agrarian Systems and Rural Development(1979) Mukandala, Rwekaza S. ItemStudents and Revolution in South Africa(UTAFITI Journal of College of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, 1979) Mukandala, Rwekaza S.The author argues that although students' demonstrations do have importance to the struggle for liberation, they cannot be a crucial factor. These demonstrations, to be effective, have to be deliberately connected to the struggle of the working class. After argumenting this contention the author concludes that the Soweto revolt was not a purely student affair, and that it became effective because the working class played a very key role in the movement. ItemMistaking a Tree for the forest: Andrew Coulson's African Socialism in Practice(Taamuli: A Political Science Forum, 1980) Mukandala, Rwekaza S. ItemOrganizational Form and Control of Parastatals in Tanzania(Taylor & Francis, 1983) Mukandala, Rwekaza S.Parastatal organizations have been at the center of the debate on organizations in Tanzania. No doubt this is partly due to the important place they have assumed in the economy of the country since the Arusha Declaration of 1967 and the consequent nationalizations. The immediate reason for their projection into the lime-light however, has been their performance which has been far below expectations. Consequently, central to the debate have been the attempts to account for this disturbing performance in the hope of arresting the trend. Among the factors pointed out as possible causes of bad performance are two related issues: — the organizational form of these parastatals, and financial control in these organizations. ItemAgrarian Transformation and Rural Development in Tanzania(1983) Maeda, J. H. J.; Msambichaka, Lucian A. ItemTrends in Civil Service Size and Income in Tanzania, 1967-1982(Taylor & Francis, 1983) Mukandala, Rwekaza S.The state bureaucracy is important in every state, but particularly so in underdeveloped countries. In the absence of a strong indigenous bourgeois class, it has been the only cohesive group with the necessary knowhow to spearhead the development effort. Tanzania has been no exception to this general trend, and consequently, the bureaucracy has occupied a central place in the discussion of socialist policies and their implementation since they were announced in 1967. Three broad issues have been at the core of the literature on the bureaucracy in Tanzania. First has been the discussion of its developmental capacity - whether it has the will and the means to put the developmental program into effect. Second, discussion has centred on the impact of socialist policies on the bureaucracy's efficiency and effectiveness; and third, there has been the major debate on whether it has transformed itself (or been transformed) into an effective class: a bureaucratic bourgeoisie. ItemThe Bureaucracy and Socialism in Tanzania: The Case of the Civil Service(African Review, 1983) Mukandala, Rwekaza S.The state bureaucracy has occupied a central place in discussion of the socialist policies in Tanzania since 1967 when they were announced. Several issues, contradictory in conception, have been raised about it by several writers. In almost all of thesewritings however, no distinction has been drawn between the various constituents of the bureaucracy, especially between the civil service and the bureaucracy centred in the parastatal organisations and, to a lesser extent, the party bureaucracy. This paper dissects the state bureaucracy concentrating on the civil service. The structural changes as well as the duties and responsabilities thrust on the civil service in the wake of the Arusha Declaration are first described, followed by analyses of the change in civil service size, income, effectiveness and efficiency. ItemSocial Science Methods, Decision-Making and Development Planning(1984) Robinson, John; Cotta, Alain; Kassé, Mamadou M.; Msambichaka, Lucian A.; Bagachwa, M. S. D.; Mbele, A. V.; Podesta, Bruno ItemAgricultural Development in Tanzania 1961-82: Performance and Major Constraints.(1985) Ndulu, B. J.; Msambichaka, Lucian A.The new policy has not been a success. The share of agriculture in GDP fell from about 60% at the beginning of the 1960s to 36% 20 years later. The food self-sufficiency target has not been reached. However, as the population outgrows food production, resort has been made to food imports. Finally, the production of export crops has been very mixed, with negative trends for some of the most important crops. The agricultural sector continues to provide most of the employment in the country largely due to the failure of the non-agricultural sectors to develop sufficiently rapidly. ItemThe Distribution and Socio-Economic Aspects of Mangrove Forests in Tanzania(1986) Mainoya, J. R.; Mesaki, Simeon; Banyikwa, Feetham F.Mangrove vegetation is characteristic of sheltered coastlines in the tropics. Mangrove communities are extensive in protected shallow bays and estuaries, around lagoons, and on the leeward side of peninsulas and islands. In Tanzania mangrove forests occur on the sheltered shores of deltas, alongside river estuaries, and in creeks where there is an abundance of fine-grained sediment (silt and clay) in the upper part of the inter-tidal zone. ItemComparison of Estimators of Interclass and Intraclass Correlations from Familial Data(Wiley, 1986) Srivastava, M. S.; Katapa, R. S.When familles have different numbers of offspring, Srivastava (1984) gave an alternative approach to deriving the maximum-likelihood estimators of inter- and intraclass correlations, which requires solving only one equation. Since the procedure is iterative and requires considerable computation, several alternative estimators have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, a comparison is made between the maximum-likelihood estimator and two alternative estimators proposed by Srivastava (1984). By obtaining the asymptotic normal distributions of the estimators, it is shown that one of the easily computable estimators is comparable to the maximum-likelihood estimator. ItemThe Socio-Economic Implications of Structural Changes in Plantations in African Countries(1986) Lugogo, J. A.; Msambichaka, Lucian A.; Bagachwa, M. S. D.; Dadson, J. A.; Tano, K.ILO pub. Working paper, case studies of social implications and economic implications of structural change in plantations in Ghana, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya and Tanzania - examines trends affecting agricultural production of cash crops and agricultural employment; comments on legislation regarding land ownership (inc. Land reform); considers agricultural price, agricultural income, wages and working conditions of plantation workers (incl. Rural women). Map, references, statistical tables, tables. ItemAgricultural Credit in Tanzania: A Peasant Perspective / Le Crédit Agricole En Tanzanie - Le Point De Vue Des Agriculteurs(1987) Amani, Haidari K. R.; Msambichaka, Lucian A.; Hedlund, Stefan; Lundahl, MatsCet article présente les résultats d'une enquête sur le crédit agricole qui s'est déroulée au mois de décembre 1984 dans les régions de Iringa, Dodoma et Morogoro en Tanzanie. On connait actuellement très peu de choses sur l'expérience des agriculteurs tanzaniens pour ce qui est la demande et l'offre de crédits. Au niveau gouvernemental, on met l'accent sur les besoins en crédits sans trop savoir si les agriculteurs partagent ce point de vue et sans connaître le volume des crédits disponibles dans les campagnes. Le plupart des agriculteurs interrogés n'ont pas d'épargne liquide ou n'épargnent que de petites sommes (il est bon d'ajouter toutefois que le bétail est une forme d'avoir très répandue). Il est indéniable qu'une demande de crédit existe et tout porte à croire que les prêts dont la finalité est la production agricole constituent la part la plus grande de cette demande. D'après les agriculteurs, le manque de capital nécessaire à la production agricole en limite son volume. Le quart seulement des agriculteurs interrogés reconnaissent avoir obtenu un prêt l'année précédant l'enquête et 40% de ces prêts proviennent de sources privées (non-officielles) avec, cependant, de grandes différences entre les régions. Les crédits officiels sont répartis de manière inégale entre les régions. Les connaissances sur les sources éventuelles de crédit à l'intérieur ou à l'extérieur des villages sont rudimentaires. Les possibilités d'emprunt sont ignorées par environ la moitié des agriculteurs interrogés. Les sommes à emprunter sont relativement petites — en règle générale inférieures à 1.000 shillings — et les prêts ne sont pas accordés pour plus d'un an dans la majeure partie des cas. Les taux d'intérêt sont bas pour les sources officielles comme privées et il n'existe aucun système de prêts à usure. Néanmoins, la majorité des agriculteurs interrogés préfère les crédits officiels au prêts accordés par des personnes privées. ItemThe nurture of power and torture of parastatals in Africa(In Proceedings of 13th Annual Conference of the African Studies Association, Denver, Colorado, 1987) Mukandala, Rwekaza S. ItemEstimation of Interclass and Intraclass Correlations in Multivariate Familial Data(1988) Srivastava, M. S.; Keen, K. J.; Katapa, R. S.Asymptotically normal estimators of interclass and intraclass correlations are derived for more than two quantitative characteristics of parent and siblings in a simple random sampling of families that have different numbers of offspring. These estimators are proposed as an alternative to the maximum likelihood estimators, which can be found only by iterative methods requiring prohibitively large amounts of computation. The asymptotic variances of the proposed estimators are also given. In an illustrative example, these easily computable estimators are seen to be comparable to the corresponding maximum likelihood estimators. ItemThe Political Economy of Parastatal Enterprise in Tanzania and Botswana(University of California, Berkeley, 1988) Mukandala, Rwekaza S. ItemDemographic Consequences of the 1984-1985 Ethiopian Famine(Springer Link, 1989) Kidane, Asmerom W.This article analyzes demographic responses to the 1984–1985 Ethiopian famine and compares them with Bongaarts and Cain’s (1982) hypothesized responses. After briefly describing the data collection, I estimate the age distribution and the age-specific mortality and fertility rates of Ethiopian famine victims in a resettlement area and compare these with mortality estimates for the 1972–1973 Bangladesh famine and with fertility estimates from the 1981 Ethiopian demographic survey. The results show that the mortality rate among Ethiopian famine victims was about seven times higher than the rate among the Bangladesh victims and that the Ethiopian famine-related mortality was general and not a function of household socioeconomic variables. The data also show a 26 percent lower total fertility rate among famine victims. ItemAgricultural Credit in Tanzania 1961-1966 / Le Crédit Agricole En Tanzanie 1961-66(1989) Lundahl, Mats; Msambichaka, Lucian A.The article deals with the history of formal agricultural credit in Tanzania during the first years of independence, up to the Arusha Declaration in 1967. During this period greater efforts than hitherto were made to reach the small African farmer and make him switch to improved methods of production. The period also saw the emergence of national policies in the monetary sector. Some old credit institutions were abolished and new ones were established. The foundations were laid for present rural lending policies. In quantitative terms little was achieved, however. In 1967-68 no more than 4,5 percent of all loans to rural households came from, inadequately functioning, public institutions ItemMortality Estimates of the 1984–1985 Ethiopian Famine(1990) Kidane, Asmerom W.A brief summary of famine and drought from a historical perspective is given. In an attempt to estimate the magnitude of deaths due to the 1984-85 famine in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted among the resettled famine victims. The results show that the expected life at birth among the male and female famine victims was 6.2 and 5.7 years, respectively. When compared with the highest mortality rates ever recorded (that is Coale-Demeny, West Model Life Table level 1), the Ethiopian famine induced rate seems to be considerably higher. Regional variations between the two famine affected regions show that mortality in Tigrai was slightly higher than that of Wello. Also prefamine socio-economic differentials between households did not seem to have an effect on mortality. The results suggest that as much as 700,000 excess deaths might have occurred during the 1984-85 famine period in Ethiopia.