Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

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    Assessing the digitalisation level of the Tanzanian apparel industry: Industry 4.0 perspectives
    (Emerald, 2022-05-19) Taifa, Ismail WR; Mollel, Joshua Z; Nhelekwa, Lucas B
    Purpose Industry 4.0 has an inimitable potential to create competitive advantages for the apparel industry by enhancing productivity, production, profitability, efficiency and effectiveness. This study, thus, aims to assess the digitalisation level of the Tanzanian apparel industry through the Industry 4.0 perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-methods-based approach was deployed. This study deployed semi-structured interviews, document review and observation methods for the qualitative approach. For the quantitative approach, closed-ended questionnaires were used to ascertain the digitalisation levels and maturity level of the textiles and apparel (T&A) factories and small and medium-sized textile enterprises in Tanzania. The sample size was 110, with participants engaged through the purposive sampling technique. Findings Industry 4.0 frameworks evolved into practices mainly since 2011 in several service and manufacturing industries globally. For Tanzania, the findings indicate that the overall maturity level of the T&A industries is 2.5 out of 5.0, demonstrating a medium level of adoption. Thus, the apparel industries are not operating under the industry 4.0 framework; they are operating within the third industrial revolution – Industry 3.0 – framework. For such industries to operate within the fourth industrial revolution – Industry 4.0 – that is only possible if there is significantly well-developed industrial infrastructure, availability of engineering talent, stable commercial partnerships, demand from the marketplace and transactional relationship with customers. Research limitations/implications This study’s limitations include: firstly, Industry 4.0 is an emerging area; this resulted in limited theoretical underpinnings in the Tanzanian perspectives. Secondly, the studied industries may not suffice the need to generalise the findings for the entire country, thus needing another study. Originality/value Although Industry 4.0 conceptual frameworks have been on trial in several industries since 2011, this is amongst the first empirical research on Industry 4.0 in the Tanzanian apparel industry that assesses the digitalisation levels.
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    Establishing standard allowed minutes and sewing efficiency for the garment industry in Tanzania
    (2022-01-20) Taifa, Ismail WR; Alexander, Taus; Nchalala
    Purpose The garment factories focus on improving their production systems by involving innovative and advanced production methods and/or techniques to cope with fast-changing trends. Accordingly, this study aims to establish the standard allowed minutes (SAMs) and sewing efficiencies for Tanzania’s sewing industry, thus improving the production processes. Design/methodology/approach The research deployed a quantitative method. A stopwatch measured each operation for shirts and trousers to compute SAMs and efficiency. The shirt manufacturing processes involved 40 operations. Ten measurements were taken from different SL and LL industries operators for each operation. The trouser comprised 42 operations with 10 measurements taken from a different operator at the same garment factories for each operation. Findings SAMs for shirts at SL and LL factories were 29 and 31 min, respectively, while trousers were 30 and 34 min. The sewing efficiencies for shirts at both SL and LL factories were 83.98% and 81.93%, respectively. Similarly, the sewing efficiencies for trousers at both SL and LL factories were 81.25% and 80.95%, respectively. Research limitations/implications Since SAMs results are not established through literature rather a quantitative approach, the findings thus place crucial information for similar factories to benchmark from. Such information are crucial as factories could increase productivity and operational efficiency, reduce costs and non-value adding activities and estimate lead times. Notwithstanding the findings gathered, the study only established SAMs for two garments. Originality/value Although the garment industry has been developing over the years, this study was probably among the first studies in Tanzania that established SAMs. Theoretical underpinnings indicate that the factories use the experience to assemble garments, thus the need for this study.
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    An analytical study on establishing strategies for improving the productivity of the spinning industries
    (Inderscience, 2022-02-09) Kundi, Beatus A.T.; Taifa, Ismail WR; Mwasubila, Ibrahim Joseph
    Strategies for improving the productivity of the spinning industries are much needed. In this paper, a case of a spinning industry was systematically studied. The strategies for enhancing productivity were established through a mixed approach. The studied industry experienced low productivity as they were only achieving 55%-68% of their production plan. Also, their actual operational machine availability was 67%. The proposed strategies include improving the spooling and the drawing process by installing new machinery technology; improve raw materials and components flow; hiring well-trained workers; develop employee training programs; search for new market segments; establish effective information and communications technology section, and develop an implementable maintenance plan. The study also revealed that system dynamics modelling helps to arrange descriptive information analytically. Thus, Vensim® software was applied to illustrate the differences between productivity, specifically before and after implementing the established strategies. The study considered only a single industry and 'single-factor productivity measures'.
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    Quality 4.0 transition framework for Tanzanian manufacturing industries
    (2022-05-31) Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Maganga, Deusdedith Pastory
    Purpose This research aimed at developing the Quality 4.0 transition framework for Tanzanian manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach The survey method was used in this study to gather practitioners' perspectives. The approach included open-ended and closed-ended structured questionnaires to assess respondents' perceptions of Quality 4.0 awareness and manufacturers' readiness to transit to Quality 4.0. The study's objective was to adopt non-probability and purposive sampling strategies. The study focused on fifteen Tanzanian manufacturing industries. The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively using MAXQADA 2020 and Minitab 20 software packages, respectively. Findings The study demonstrated a high level of awareness of Quality 4.0 among Tanzanian manufacturing industries (i.e. 100% in Quality 4.0 traditional attributes and 53% in Quality 4.0 modern attributes). Individuals acquire knowledge in various ways, including through quality training, work experience, self-reading and Internet surfing. The result also revealed that most manufacturing industries in Tanzania use Quality 3.0 or a lower approach to manage quality. However, Tanzanian manufacturing industries are ready to embrace Quality 4.0 since practitioners are aware of the concepts and could see benefits such as customer satisfaction, product improvement, process and continuous improvement, waste reduction and decision support when using the Quality 4.0 approach. The challenges hindering Quality 4.0 adoption in Tanzania include reliable electricity, high-speed Internet and infrastructure inadequacy to support the adoption, skilled workforces familiar with Quality 4.0-enabled technologies and a financial set-up to support technology investment. Moreover, the study developed a transition framework for an organisation to transition from traditional quality approaches such as quality control, quality assurance and total quality management to Quality 4.0, a modern quality approach aligned with the fourth industrial revolution era. Research limitations/implications The current study solely looked at manufacturing industries, leaving other medical, service, mining and construction sectors. Furthermore, no focus was laid on the study's Quality 4.0 implementation frameworks. Originality/value This is probably the first Quality 4.0 transition framework for Tanzanian manufacturing industries, perhaps with other developing countries.
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    Quality 4.0 conceptualisation: an emerging quality management concept for manufacturing industries
    (Emerald, 2023-01-26) Maganga, Deusdedith Pastory; Taifa, Ismail W.R.
    Purpose Quality 4.0 refers to a modern quality management approach that uses Industry 4.0 technologies, integration and digitalisation. This research explores the current understandings of Quality 4.0 in various publications. The focus is on Quality 4.0 concepts or explanations, available models, motivation and readiness factors for adoption, enablers and technologies that can be leveraged. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative approach was deployed to collect the findings. This paper employs bibliometric, scientometric and visual analytic tools to identify and analyse articles from Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), Google Scholar databases and other sources such as ScienceDirect and Taylor and Francis. Findings The bibliometric results revealed that Quality 4.0 publications began in 2016 and increased dramatically in 2020 and 2021, with India leading the way while scientometric analysis found no clear definition of Quality 4.0 hitherto. However, several authors have defined the concept of Quality 4.0, arguing that it is characterised by digitalisation and integration, Industry 4.0 technologies applications and big data management. Some of the Quality 4.0 models published in the theoretical underpinnings include total quality management (TQM) in the basis of Industry 4.0 model, the European Foundation for quality management model, Quality 4.0 model combining operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT) through digital transformation and the LSN Research eleven axes of Quality 4.0 model. The research highlights key enablers of Quality 4.0 adoption, such as enabling technologies, big data capability, skilled and competent workers, collaboration and leadership support. Research limitations/implications The findings can benefit Quality 4.0 researchers and practitioners on the available Quality 4.0 models, motivation and readiness factors for Quality 4.0 adoption, enablers and leveraged technologies in Quality 4.0. Originality/value This study attempted to explore the current understandings of Quality 4.0 concepts to sediment these emerging quality management concepts for manufacturing industries.
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    Deployment of the Taguchi technique for surface roughness optimisation
    (Inderscience, 2021-09-10) Deshpande, Vivek; Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Deresse, Nesredin Chekole
    The aim is to investigate the machining parameters that are important to optimise surface roughness (Ra) through experimentation for EN45 steel material (AISI 9260). Optimisation of the machining parameters for a cylindrical grinding operation helps to save time, cost, and influence to get better surface characteristics and surface finish. The study deployed the Taguchi technique. The scrutinised factors included the feed rate, work speed and the depth of cut (DOC). Experimental set up involved the L9 orthogonal array. Minitab® and Microsoft® Excel 2016 generated results after applying the design of experiment. The Ra was tested by using a portable surface roughness tester. The silicon carbide wheel and a hydraulic cylindrical grinder machine were used. After analysing the generated results, DOC was found to be statistically significant. The influential parameter of Ra was found to be DOC as it contributed to 45.3% and 58.6% before and after heat treatment processes, respectively.
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    Enabling manufacturer selection and an equitable order allocation amongst textiles and apparel manufacturers
    (Inderscience, 2021) Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Hayes, George S; Stalker, Ian Duncan
    Small and medium-sized textile enterprises (SMTEs) contribute to the UK economy. Anecdotal evidence indicates that many SMTEs fail to secure enough orders from British retailers. So, this paper reports on the methodological decision analysis model and the qualitative linear weighted point method (LWPM) to develop the pertinent critical success decision criteria and virtually distribute the bulk orders equitably. The relevant decision criteria are stated for the SMTEs. The criteria are crucial as they were consolidated from the textiles and apparel manufacturers only, contrary to other several studies that established generic decision criteria. The criteria consist of corporate social responsibility, economic and environmental factors. The results indicate the opportunity to execute order quantities equitably after having ranked the collaborating SMTEs. LWPM assisted to rank SMTEs in selecting the right manufacturers. Since the criteria are from the SMTEs only; the generalisability of the results to other industries may need further research.
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    Production quality improvement for the soft drinks bottling industry through six sigma methodology
    (2022-01-28) Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Makundi, Ebenezer D; Mwaluko, George S
    Increase of rejection rate (percentage) in the production process of soft drinks is one of the chronic problems in the soft drinks industry. Over four months, the production rejection rate (PRR) increased up to 12.62%. This resulted in an estimated loss of 93,412,800 Tanzanian Shilling (TZS) at X-Company. Therefore, this study explored how to improve the quality of production in the manufacturing process of the Tanzanian soft drinks industry. The Six Sigma methodology - define-measure-analyse-improve-control (DMAIC) - was employed. DMAIC considers existing products, process and improves the same. An in-depth insight into PRR and speed of acquiring such insight while increasing the problem diversification was successfully performed. Still, soft drinks companies face high PRR. The critical reasons occur during bottle filling and crowning operations. The sigma level was found to be 4.9 with the cost of poor quality being 12.62%. This study achieved a potential annual saving of 280,238,400 TZS.
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    Critical analysis of material consumption and cost reduction techniques for the apparel cutting processes
    (CONAS, University of Dar es Salaam, 2021-12-01) Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Twaha, Ibrahim; Mwakibambo, Mboka A
    Revenues generation in the garment industry is synonymous with material consumption. This study thus analysed material consumption and cost reduction techniques in the Tanzanian garment industry. The research employed quantitative (experimentation) and qualitative approaches (document review and observation technique) in the apparel cutting processes. Experimental results of material consumption from ten tests averaged efficiency of 78.67%, the wasted pieces (19.2%), and unnoticed waste (2.03%). Essential considerations to reduce material waste include: digitalising the fabric cutting processes; providing workers training; deploying appropriate practices in the cutting room (e.g. pattern engineering and pattern accuracy); considering the quality of the procured fabric and fabric efficiencies relative to different human body shapes and proportions; and considering the separation process rather than extending facings, splitting substantial components, slight reductions in a flare, and seam displacements. The study implies that apparel enterprises can benchmark their actual material consumption circa 50-70% of their total garment manufacturing costs.
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    The development of an ergonomically designed product through an integrated product team approach
    (Taylor & Francis, 2021) Taifa, Ismail W.R.; Desai, Darshak A; Bulsara, Niravkumar Mukesh
    Purpose. This article discusses the process of developing an ergonomic desk for students through an integrated product team approach. Methodology. Using an integrated product team approach, numerous quality tools, customization techniques, strategic tools and techniques including quality function deployment, ergonomic principles, Kano model, SCAMPER (substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put, eliminate, reverse), brainstorming, Pareto’s principle and cause-and-effect diagrams were systematically applied. In addition, for detailed designs, anthropometric measurements were considered. Results. Having identified various health problems associated with use of unergonomic furniture by students, this study developed an ergonomic desk using SolidWorks version 2016. The ergonomic student desk considered the design for adjustability principle which accommodates 90% of all students (5th percentile female to 95th percentile male). Conclusions. Data obtained from three colleges were systematically verified, validated and evaluated and a design for an ergonomic student desk was the result. Adoption of these systematic processes gives the design practical validity, and once the ergonomic student desk has completed the manufacturing process its use is expected to lead to a reduction in the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders, neck problems, back pain and pressure on the hips. Ultimately, students having acquired a desk designed to fit their requirements will achieve comfort and satisfaction.
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    Sustainable industrialisation for luxury products: Manufacturers and retailers must commit to tackling modern slavery in Africa
    (Springer, 2021-07-26) Taifa, Ismail W.R.
    Globally, there is high pressure concerning sustainability. This requires designers, manufacturers, distributors, and consumers to have obligations of looking at sustainability tenets: social (people), economic (profit) and environment (planet). Researchers have been exploring economic and environmental issues in several sectors. It is the sustainability age where people must now look at contemporary issues in the manufacturing (production) processes of luxury goods. One of the critical problems in today’s supply chain of industrial luxury products is modern slavery issues (MSIs) (or neo-slavery or contemporary slavery). MSIs mostly refer to slavery that continues to occur in private individuals, groups, institutions, organisations, companies, on engaging child labour, human trafficking, forced labour, long working hours, among other forms, in manufacturing products. This study focuses on Africa regarding manufacturing and retailing of luxury products. Africa is focused because the 2018 Global Slavery Index ranked Africa number one concerning MSIs; several African countries produce precious (valuable) metals; and, many African societies cannot notice much about how critical the MSIs are. The production processes and other sustainability issues were thus explored. The findings suggest the need for Africa to strengthen consolidative interventions to fight the diverse environment that results in MSIs.
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    A student-centred design approach for reducing musculoskeletal disorders in India through Six Sigma methodology with ergonomics concatenation’
    (Elsevier, 2022-03) Taifa, Ismail W.R.
    Classroom-related musculoskeletal disorders (CMSDs) rates in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are increasing despite the ever-collective interest in occupational health and safety (OHS) and succeeding developments over time. To explore the problem (i.e., OHS) with its proposed solutions, this study integrated the Six Sigma methodology with ergonomics principles to eliminate the CMSDs. Participants were 478 students from India as a country amongst the LMICs. The age range, mean, and standard deviation were 17–37, 20.28, and 2.348 for male students and 17–26, 19.57, and 2.163 for female students, respectively (units in years). The study found that students are prone to high risks of getting CMSDs due to prolonged usage of poorly designed furniture. The CMSDs results are as follows: fatigue joint and muscle pain (71%), shoulder and neck tension (70%), headache (63%), neck pain (53%), back pain (51%), legs’ joints pain (46%), shoulders and muscles pain (42%), elbow pain (42%), sleeplessness (insomnia) (40%) and hand pain (39%). The proposed solutions include the two ergonomically designed students’ desks; students’ requirements and anthropometric measurements consideration; occupational health and safety workshops and/or seminars preparation; administration interventions; behavioural (personal) interventions, and other engineering interventions.
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    Production of Paper Pulp Using Sisal Fiber Waste from Sisal Spinning Processes
    (2022-05-20) Mbise, Ekael Ellyns; Mtweve, Bosco; Minja, Rwaichi
    Disposal of large volumes of textile waste is an escalating problem for textile industries. Sisal spinning industry is the one of the textile industries releasing large volumes of textile waste in the landfills. The rising costs, and reduction of available space together with increasing stringent environmental measures are making burying and land filling of textile waste, a declining option. This study therefore explores recycling options where the potential of using sisal fiber waste produced during sisal spinning processes as raw materials for the production of paper pulp was investigated. Sampling was done at 21stCentury Holdings Limited allocated at Chang’ombe industrial street Dar es Salaam mainly dealer of sisal yarns production. Materials were prepared and cut into small pieces of about ½ inches to reduce the fiber into unit lengths so as to achieve pulping required performance. Pulping process was achieved through Soda pulping techniques with two different effective alkali charges (EA-20% and EA-24%) for 240 minutes under maximum temperature 140 C, and liquor to fiber ratio 4:1by using Mathis Labomat dyeing Machine. The kappa number obtained was (25.5, 34.5) for material treated under EA 24% and EA 20% respectively, Percentage pulp yield were (47.1, 54.4) for EA 24% and EA20% pulp respectively. Freeness (630CFS, 555CSF) after refining at 4500rpm. Finally, the resulting pulp was used for hand sheet making and the sheets were tested for their mechanical properties; Grammage (61.1, 61.1) g/m2, Tensile index (9.9, 22.3) Nm/g, Tear index (13.3, 17.4) Nm2/g, burst index (1.7, 3.7 and 1.6) and Elongation at break (2.02, 2.22) % for EA24% pulp, EA20% pulp respectively. The findings shows that sisal fiber wastes have a promising potential for paper pulp production compared to other non-wood raw material.
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    Study of physical and mechanical Properties of Sansevieria Ehrenbergii Fibres (SEF)
    (Medcrave, 2022-05-20) Mbise, Ekael Ellyns; Masombe, Moi; Tito, Venance
    The study is aimed to investigate physical and mechanical properties of fibres extracted from sansevieria ehrenbergii plant and its quality for different textile products such ropes, carpets and fabrics in order to enhance commercialization and utilization of the plant. The SEF were extracted by means of the hand decortication from the plant leaves and physical and mechanical properties were determined. Analysis the fibres showed that were flexible, smooth with mean length of 138.48 cm, maximum breaking force of 19.51N, linear density of 44.76 tex, tenacity of 0.48 N/ tex at the maximum breaking force and Tensile strain was 0.0368 mm at the maximum breaking force. Also other absorption results showed that SEF had moisture regain of 9.46% and moisture content 8.67%. A brief comparison of SEF with other similar fibres was performed and a promising comparison drawn.
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    Potential of Using Sugarcane Leaves to Produce Pulp for Paper Making
    (Opastonline, 2021-01-09) Ekael, Mbise; Issa, Said; Rwaichi, Minja
    The search for alternative fiber sources among which non-wood materials have found wide application in pulp and paper production. Sugarcane leaves can be among non-wood sources for papermaking. Tanzania has a lot of sugarcane leaves, which are burned during harvesting period in sugar industries. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the Potential of using sugarcane leaves to produce pulp for papermaking. This will lead to reduced wood consumption as well as minimization of global warming impact resulting from CO2 emissions as a result of burning of sugarcane fields before harvesting. Pulping of sugarcane leaves was achieved through chemical pulping method (Soda pulping) with two different effective alkali charges (EA-12% and EA-18%) and the pulp obtained were tested for their Kappa number (33.9, 20.9), Pulp yield (35.8%, 27.2%), and Freeness (520CSF and 490CSF). The resulting pulp was used for hand sheet making and the papers obtained were tested for their mechanical properties; Grammage (58.5, 59.4) g/m2, Tensile index (30.5, 41.1) Nm/g, Tear index (9.4, 9.5) Nm2/g, burst index (3.3, 4.7) and Elongation at break (2.57, 2.75) %, for papers made from sugarcane leaves pulp with two different treatments respectively. The overall results showed that Tanzanian sugarcane leaves has a promising potential as alternatives fibers for pulp and paper making industry
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    (2018-08) Sultan, Sufi; Macha, Innocent J; Majaja, Bashira A
    Recently the use of textiles in medical applications has gone far enough for treatment and health care purposes. Biopolymers and other biomaterials can be used together to develop wide range of materials including composites to serve the intended use. The most promising advantages to be used in this area is biocompatibility i.e. their non-toxicity in biological systems when applied internally, and far enough their comfortability and flexibility with better performance. This may be compared with derived petrochemical materials which have side effects to biological systems and further their complexity in handling including disposability. The most promising advantages of controlled drug release devices are; drug is released at specific target, decrease drug concentration, reduce drug morphology change due to biotransformation and releasing drug at specific rate for a specified period of use. This study focused at developing and characterizing bioceramics-woven cotton fabric PLA reinforced composite as a drug delivery device for biomedical application. The cotton woven fabric of different pore sizes, (0.5 mm), (1 mm), and (1.5 mm) were developed using cotton yarn of count 30 Tex in handloom machine. Bioceramic particles were loaded with antibiotic (streptomycin sulfate) by using rotor vapor evaporator and followed by embediment of loaded particles into the fabrics. Then, composites were developed by dipping the embedded fabrics into the PLA solutions of different concentrations: 0.01mg/ml, 0.03mg/ml and 0.06mg/ml. The developed composites were characterized in terms of mechanical and physical properties. The results showed that tensile strength varied proportional to the pore sizes of the fabric and concentration of polymer solution i.e. the lower the pore size the higher the mechanical strength and the higher the concentration of polymer the higher the mechanicalstrength. Dissolution study showed that, when pore size kept constant, drug release rate was decreased when polymer concentration was increased, this result suggested that the release rate is influenced by the polymer concentration. Degradation study showed that the composites was degraded by 2.33%, 4%, and 7.33% for 0.5 mm pore size specimen for 0.01g/ml, 0.03g/ml and 0.06g/ml concentration respectively after two weeks. Absorption study showed that at higher concentration of polymer only small amount of water could be absorbed by the composite. It was then concluded that, the developed composite can be used as drug delivery device for wound dressing application.
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    (2018-08) Maguru, Beatus; Macha, Innocent J
    An attempt has been made to develop anti-microbial textiles by studying the Inhibition zone using honey and turmeric. The concentration of honey and turmeric was as 10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7, and 0:10 and it was applied on to the fabric using direct padding method. The antimicrobial activity of honey and turmeric treated fabric were tested against the infectious bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Both the samples show better results against the bacteria but honey shows the best results by largest Inhibition Zone diameter.
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    Kinetics and the Theoretical Aspects of Drug Release from PLA/HAp Thin Films
    (Trans Tech Publications Inc, 2017-09) Macha, Innocent J; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Muller, Wolfgang
    The theory of dissolution kinetics of gentamicin from polylactic acid-hydroxyapatite thin film composites is spotlighted with the combination of diffusion and polymer degradation modeling. The use of various mathematical models, characterizing diffusion, dissolution or/and erosion prevalence as well as a mix of dissolution-diffusion rate processes were employed in order to compare theory with experimental data. A number of factors influence the release kinetics of gentamicin from medical drug release systems and devices. It is difficult to have a single mathematical model that takes all these factors into account. It is shown that the degradation of the polymer matrix plays the biggest role in the release kinetics of polymer-ceramics thin film composites. It was also observed that multistage drug release form these devices depends also on the degradation kinetics of the polymer matrix. The effect of pH and device sizes were not studied but could also be of interest in future studies.
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    Comparative Study of Conversion of Coral with Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate and Orthophosphoric Acid to Produce Calcium Phosphates
    (Springer NATURE, 2014) Cegla, Rabea-Naemi Rosa; Macha, Innocent J; Ben-Nissan, Besim; Grossin, David; Heness, Greg; Chung, Ren-Jei
    Biogenic materials like corals, which are readily available, could be used to produce bioceramic materials and address significant advantages due to their unique structures and chemical compositions that contain Mg and Sr. Many conversion processes has been in the past proposed. In this work, a comparison study between the conversion of coral with orthophosphoric acid and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate was conducted. The resultant structures and compositions were studied using XRD, ICP-MS, SEM and FTIR. The results show that with phosphoric acid the coral was converted into mainly monetite (92%). The ammonium dihydrogen phosphate converted approximately 76% of the coral to hydroxyapatite through solid state reactions. The two routes proved to be effective in producing bioceramic materials from corals under moderate conditions of temperature with a basic condition favouring the yield of hydroxyapatite.
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    Calcium phosphate nanocoatings and nanocomposites, part 2: thin films for slow drug delivery and osteomyelitis
    (Future Medicine, 2016-02-19) Ben-Nissan, Besim; Macha, Innocent J; Cazalbou, Sophie; Choi, Andy H.
    During the last two decades although many calcium phosphate based nanomaterials have been proposed for both drug delivery, and bone regeneration, their coating applications have been somehow slow due to the problems related to their complicated synthesis methods. In order to control the efficiency of local drug delivery of a biomaterial the critical pore sizes as well as good control of the chemical composition is pertinent. A variety of calcium phosphate based nanocoated composite drug delivery systems are currently being investigated. This review aims to give an update into the advancements of calcium phosphate nanocoatings and thin film nanolaminates. In particular recent research on PLA/hydroxyapatite composite thin films and coatings into the slow drug delivery for the possible treatment of osteomyelitis is covered.